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Thursday, July 31, 2014

Recycling Things Found Around Your Home to Make Altered Art

Recycling Things Found Around Your Home to Make Altered Art

Altered art is all about using things found around your home to make art. Many people spend a lot of money on expensive art supplies, and they simply overlook all the treasures they have right around their house. Here are some of the things I enjoying using that I have around my home. One if my favorite sayings is "Waste not, want not."

You know how a lot of products you buy from the store have that clear plastic cellophane around them; this is a great tool when creating art. Big pieces can be used to cover pictures, and a mat board frame can be placed on top of the cellophane to protect and enhance your art. Cellophane can be painted, crumpled, or shredded and added to art to create depth.
Another useful and overlooked art supply is newspapers and books. These items can come in handy in many ways; they can be used as interesting backgrounds for scenes. Newspapers and books can also be used to cut words, letters, and quotes out of. Some newspapers and books also have fun and interesting pictures that can be used as focal points of art projects.
Wire is a big helper when creating altered art because it can be used to create flowers, fairy wands, trees, and anything else you can shape it into. Wire is also helpful because it can be attached to art so that your art can be hung on the wall. Wire can also make a stand for your art, or it can help you tie parts of your art together.
Twist ties from bread and other packaged good are another fun art tool. Some come in pretty metallic colors, and some come in plain colors, but they can also help hold things together. These twist ties can also be tied into bows or used as flower stems.
Sticks, pine cones, dried flowers, and leaves are also helpful items when creating altered art. Sticks can be used to make frames, or sticks can be used to simulate trees in landscape scenes. Pinecones can be used as miniature trees, and they can be painted depending on what season is being simulated. Dried flowers and leaves can be used as wings or clothes for little flower fairies. They can also be used to create texture and depth to a work of art.
Altered art is my favorite art because iit gets your hands dirty, and because you can use all sorts of everyday junk to produce it. I hope you find these items as useful and inspiring as I have, and remember have fun!

Tips on Creating Art Card Editions and Originals and Artist Trading Cards

Tips on Creating Art Card Editions and Originals and Artist Trading Cards

Art card, editions and originals are an easy and inexpensive way to make gifts for people, express yourself, and have a good time. I love making art cards and find it very relaxing. There is only one simple rule to these fun little cards; artist trading cards must measure 2 and a half inches by 3 and a half inches. This size is actually a convenient size because it is the same measurements as the average playing card. ACEOs and ATCs can be composed of whatever materials you enjoy working with, and here are some tips that I find useful when making ATCs and ACEOs.
I like to use a lot of collage work when making ACEOs so I usually do random image searches on the computer to find images that strike some inspiration for me. Once I find a good image I print it out and cut it out. If you do not have a printer you can use magazines or books to find images; you may also feel free to draw your own images.
Once I have a good image I place it on the cards I have precut from cardstock or cardboard, and I glue it down. I like to alter my pictures by adding some oil pastels. Oil pastels are fun because they smudge, and can be wiped away if you only want to add a hint of color to the original image. Acrylic paint is another interesting art tool to use because it can be watered down and used to create blurry effects. I also use paint pens, markers, and pens on occasion to add details that the paint and pastels can not create.
Another fun part of making ATCs is picking a theme. Since these little cards can be used as gifts it is fun to make holiday themed cards, and a handmade card is always more thoughtful than a store bought card. ATCs can be made for Easter by using bunny rabbit cut outs and fake grass. Beads can be used in place of eggs. Christmas themed ATCs are also nice gifts because you can use tinfoil to make angel wings and pine needles to add accents.
A major part of making ACEOs and ATCs is personalizing them. It is important that your art cards have your own personal touch, so make sure to let your artist freedom run wild. Feel free to use things found around your home that do not naturally seem artistic to add your own personal touch. Just remember to have fun when making these cards, and your ATCs will come out better than expected.

How to Draw Dragons

How to Draw Dragons

Dragons are famous mythical characters that appear all over the television and movies. They are awesome creatures that are a combination of lizard, snake, and bat. Drawing a dragon may seem intimidating to those who are interested in drawing mythical creatures, but they are not as hard to draw as is expected. This article will teach you how to draw the profile view of a dragon.
First you will need paper and a pencil; a basic idea of what you want your dragon to look like is also important. Remember that dragons can come in many shapes and sizes, and dragons can have ears, fangs, horns, big wings, or long tails. They can have talons or they can have scales, but either way it is important to know what you are trying to draw before you get started.
Now that you have your ideas and your pencil start by drawing a line for the neck. Remember dragons are kind of like snakes and the neck shape should look something like a question mark or a hook. Next it you will draw the head as an elongated egg or oval shape. If your dragon is going to be rough instead of friendly it is good to make this oval more box shaped than round. Remember the smaller end is the snout and should be on the outside of the neck. Then you will have to draw a flattened circle at the upper part of the egg shape that is closer to the neck. This circle will be where the eye socket and the eyebrow structure is located. Next draw another slightly larger circle underneath the eye circle, and this circle is the beginning of the dragon's jaw and mouth.
Now that you have the basic shape of the dragon you will have to fill in the details. Where you have made the eye socket circle you should draw an eye. Those of you who can picture dragons know that they have a rectangular or narrow shaped eye, and this shape should be placed at the bottom of the flatten circle so the rest of the circle appears to arch over the eye giving it definition. Next using the side of the jaw circle, that is closer to the neck, define the jaw line and extend it along the bottom of the head to where the mouth and snout would be. Now draw a line separating the upper and lower jaw that extends into the jaw circle. I like to make the line a little jagged because it can simulate teeth. This line can determine whether or not your dragon is smiling. This is also when you would create a slight line in the beginning of the snout for a nose whole.
Next draw to lines that are parallel to the neck line you have drawn. You will want these lines to create a wide enough space to make sense as a neck for your dragon. Remember again a dragon's head and neck look much like a snake, and dragon's also have an underbelly that varies like a snake. The first neck line you have drawn can help to define the belly of the dragon. You can make horizontal lines going across the belly to simulate the difference in scales. Now you can add horns, scales, fangs, and any other details you would like on your dragon. Remember to erase any unnecessary lines that you have used to create your basic dragon shape, and remember to have fun because that is what art is all about!

The Benefits of Diversity in the Classroom on the Teaching Environment

The Benefits of Diversity in the Classroom on the Teaching Environment

Many teachers do not take the atmosphere of a classroom into consideration when they conduct their classes, but the atmosphere is an essential part of learning in a classroom. The environment a class is taught in helps determines the success of the lessons and the students. All students are different, and it is important for all students to respect each other in order for the productivity of a classroom to optimized. As a teacher it is important that I am able to create an atmosphere of tolerance, acceptance, and caring in the classroom in order to provide for the diversified needs of my students.
I live in Pine Bush which is located in New York. Pine Bush is located about two hours upstate from New York City, and it is a rural town. The population in Pine Bush is of Caucasian, Hispanic, Latino, African American, Asian, Pacific Islanders, and people of mixed ethnicity. In Pine Bush there are many churches, and many people of different religious beliefs. Presbyterian and Baptists churches are located very close to the center of town in Pine Bush, and there is a Buddhist monastery located in town as well. There are people of high, low, and middle class economic status, but many people in Pine Bush are of the middle working class. Pine Bush may seem like a quiet country town, but it is also diverse in many ways.
In all classrooms all over the world it is extremely important to have an atmosphere that is tolerant, accepting, and caring in the classroom; this atmosphere is beneficial to the students, the teachers, and the entire world. Practicing tolerance and acceptance in school provides students with the ability to be comfortable with themselves; it also helps students let go of preconceived biases and teaches students to learn more about what is inside of a person instead of judging them by their outsides. The use of tolerance, acceptance, and caring in the classroom provides a nice atmosphere that can be productive to learning. These practices will promote teamwork, confidence, and respect, and these are all key factors in a successful classroom. Teachers will also benefit from the use of tolerance, acceptance, and caring because they will be able to fairly grade and support students. If teachers are accepting of student's differences they will be able to look at students for their potential instead of with a bias mind, and this will help them teach more successfully. These ideas will also allow the students and teachers to earn respect for each other which will make the classroom a pleasant and productive environment. The world will benefit as a whole because of these practices because the all people should be taught tolerance, acceptance, and caring, and if more people were taught these things people would treat each other better on a bigger level. Tolerance, acceptance, and caring are beliefs that the future generations should be ingrained with, and teaching students today is what will make this possible.
In order to create a tolerant, accepting and caring classroom atmosphere there are many things one can do as a teacher. As a teacher in Pine Bush, New York I would make sure to discuss diversity, and why it is a positive thing in the classroom. I would create lesson plans that discuss the cultures of my students and the cultures of my community. I would discuss the different religious beliefs of the community as well. I believe it is also necessary to speak to the students about disabilities and at risk students; I think that it is important to discuss these issues in order to help students realize that these differences do not make someone less than them. I would also speak about socioeconomic issues and how they affect students, and the differences in gender. I think teaching about gender issues is also very important because many gender stereotypes influence how both male and females learn, and I feel that it is important for both boys and girls to be given equal opportunities in the classroom. I would discuss these issues in order to help show the students that all people have needs, and I would emphasize that it is important for students to accept and help each other in order to benefit themselves and the world around them. I would make sure the students are aware that differences in people make the world interesting, and I would create lesson plans that would help show students how their own unique differences help the classroom function properly. These lessons will help the students identify and overcome their biases, and I will also learn about my own biases from them. During these lessons I would also make sure to tell the students what I have learned about my own biases to help them understand that they can learn about themselves and improve on themselves. I feel that it is also important for students to be aware of the inequalities that exist so that they can receive the education they deserve, and they can fulfill their educational goals.
In my classroom I would have a multicultural bulletin board, and this bulletin board will contain many fun facts for students to learn from. This bulletin board will change every month, and it will contain all of the holidays that can be celebrated each month. This bulletin board will also contain different images that are associated with these different holidays, and stories and poems that describe these holidays will also be featured on this bulletin board. I would also like to include the different awareness months because there are many that are important and many that are fun and interesting such as national mentoring month, national hot tea month, heart disease awareness month, national hamburger month, and watershed awareness month. I would keep a list on the side of my bulletin board of all the different awarenesses of the month, and students would be free to discuss and research these ideas. In the beginning of each month I would allow the students to add their own thoughts to the bulletin board. I would ask them to fill in any holidays that they practice or are aware of; this would give them the ability to represent themselves and their cultures. I would also make sure to include all of their birthdays to remind them that they are all special. Each day I would have a different student give a short speech about a holiday that fell on that day, and if there was no holiday they could pick one of the month's awareness topics. This exercise will help students learn about cultures and the world, and it will help students celebrate diversity everyday.
As a teacher it is important to make sure the classroom atmosphere is comfortable in order to ensure productivity. Teaching students that differences are a good thing and those differences can be learned from and valued is a way to help ensure a positive classroom environment. As a teacher I will help my students understand biases, and I will help them be able to accept differences and treat people fairly by educating them about the differences of the people around them. I believe there are many ways a teacher can incorporate diversity lessons into the classroom, and a bulletin board is a fun, hands-on way for students to be able to learn to respect and enjoy their differences. Overall I believe that teaching students to respect each other despite their differences will benefit the students, the teachers, and the rest of the world.

How to Implement a Student At-Risk Program

How to Implement a Student At-Risk Program

As a teacher one must be able to cater to the needs of all the students in the classroom; one must also take into consideration the problems that students may face. Not all students are the same, and some students are considered at-risk because of their behavior and the situations in which they live. These at risk students do not always receive the attention they need in order to learn and become mature responsible adults. In order to meet the needs of at-risk students, alternative programs must be designed and implemented that can identify students that need help, fulfill the needs of these students, optimize the resources of the community, and take into consideration the impact on the community, district, and students.

This program will serve students of the ages of 10 through 19 who are "high risk" case, and have violent or suicidal problems (Chinn & Gollnick, 2006, p. 320). Violence in schools is a very serious issue that needs to be handled in order for the learning environment to be fully optimized. The media is constantly covering issues of student violence, and this should make this problem blatantly obvious to everyone as an issue of much concern. In the United States every year an estimated "2 million adolescents in the United States attempt suicide", and "2000 young people commit suicide"; this is a very alarming statistic that proves that a need for attention to this situation is in order (Chinn & Gollnick, 2006, p. 324). It is important that this program encompass the ages 10 through 19 because this age group has the highest tendencies for suicide and violence. Violent and suicidal students are a risk to them selves and others, and they need to be given the help they need in order to improve themselves and their situations.
In order to identify violent and suicidal students many things must be taken into consideration, but the behavior of the student is a very important factor. In order to determine if a student is violent there are some "early warning signs" that can be acknowledged; a candidate for this program may exhibit "uncontrolled anger", "expression of violence in writings and drawings", "social withdrawal", and "excessive feelings of isolation and being alone" (Nash, 2001, p.7). Violent students may also show a lack of interest in school and poor grades, but it is important to note that a student who shows only one of these signs is not necessarily violent. Other signals that may help determine which students are violent are "serious threats of violence", "patterns of impulsive and chronic hitting, intimidating, and bullying behavior", "history of discipline problems", "past history of violent and aggressive behavior", "intolerance for differences and prejudicial attitudes", and affiliation with gangs" (Nash, 2001, p.8). There are many signs that may help determine students that are suicidal, and these signs are "suddenly deteriorating academic performance", "self-mutilation", "unhealthy peer relationships", "volatile mood swings", "dangerous or uncharacteristic risk-taking", and "depression" (Teaher's guide to recognizing suicide, 2006, pp. 3). It is very important to be aware of these signs in order to determine what students are in need of this program.
This program will address the needs of the students in many ways that will help lead these students on a productive path of education. This program will not only focus on academics, but it will also focus on helping to improve the self-esteem of students. This program will include community service options and the ability to earn college credits through work study programs. It will also offer hands on art and science programs where students can exhibit their natural talents. Counseling services and discussion classes can also be offered so that students can learn that they are not the only one feeling the way they feel, and they can learn to get past their problems. With these programs students will have something positive to focus their energy on, and they will learn how rewarding their efforts can be. Violence and suicide occur because of the lack of self-esteem that a student has, and this program will make sure to help the students realize their full potential.
Many additional resources of the community can be utilized for this program. Students can do volunteer work in local parks and recreational areas where they can earn community service. Local libraries can also be a helpful resource to this program by providing students with a place to help research and explore the different art and science programs they choose to become involved in, students can also do volunteer work at the library, and hold discussion groups. Students can also hold fundraisers to help proved funds for their activities, and the local community can help support these activities. The community can also provide the praise these students need when they hold art exhibits or plays that they have constructed. The community is a very important part of the program because the community must realize that these students need help, and the community can be a positive influence in the lives of these students as well as this program.
This program holds many potential positive impacts on the district, students, and community. The district can use this program as a starting point for implementing other programs in the area, and it can learn from the positive affects of this program. All of the students will benefit from this program; the non-violent students will not have to worry about violence in their schools, and violent and suicidal students will be given opportunities that will help them become less violent and suicidal. The community will benefit as a whole because the students who are being treated will grow up to be better people. The community violence will decrease, and students who are in need of help in these areas will have a place to go. The community will also be given the opportunity to applaud the students who have improved because of this program through the art and science projects the students put on and the community services they provide. This program is beneficial to everyone in many ways.
In order to implement this program there are many steps that must be taken. A location must be chosen, and an estimated number of students in attendance must be determined. Classes can be chosen to be provided at a private location or during after school hours at a local school. Teachers participating in this program should trained "to use active listening skills and provide empathy, to utilize assertive and non-judgmental communication techniques that allow clear limits to be set, to acquire the skills to be able to intervene safely with violent acting out students", and "be able to debrief and problem-solve in the aftermath of a violent episode" (Sova, 2003, pp.2). Art and science program specifications should be determined as well as means of funding these programs. A network of community service programs should be established in order to implement this program, and parents should be spoken to in consideration of these projects. There are multiple tasks that must be completed in order to realize this program, but the positive impact it can have on the students, the community, and all people completely outweigh the efforts needed to bring these ideas to fruition.
Violence and suicide is a huge problem in schools, and programs need to be created that help serve these students and solve these problems. Students must be properly identified by behavior patterns, and their needs must be identified and met through self-esteem building practices and positive reinforcement. The district, students, and community will all benefit from this programs, and they can all work together to make this programs work. If this program is implemented the future generations will be better people as a whole, and their children will have also learned from this program from the student's own positive experience.
Reference:
Chinn, P. & Gollnick, D. (2006). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society
(N/A, 2006, May). Teacher's guide to recognizing suicide. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from Recognizing and Responding to the Warning Signs of Suicide: http://www.promoteprevent.org/Publications/center-briefs/Teacher_Guide_recognizing_suicide.pdf
Sova, G. (2003). New directions in discipline: violent students. Retrieved February 17, 2008, from New Directions: http://www.newdirectionsindiscipline.com/violent.htm
Nash, J. (2001, August). Warning signs of potentially violent students. Retrieved February 17, 2008, from Potentially Violent Students: http://www.madison.k12.al.us/pupilservices/PotentiallyViolentStudents.PDF

Bilingual Education and the Laws and Conflicts that Affect It

Bilingual Education and the Laws and Conflicts that Affect It

Bilingual education is a matter of controversy, but there are still students that need assistance in language development in order to successfully learn. It is hard to teach children with language development issues, but schools and the government have to figure out ways to meet these needs. One conflict confronting English Language Learners is funding of bilingual education; this conflict is contradicted by the lack of funding for English immersion programs. It appears that many people feel that English immersion is a more effective way of teaching English Language Learners than bilingual education. These people believe that bilingual education has a detrimental effect on English Language Learners, and "students in bilingual education programs consistently score lower on standard achievement tests" (Sorenson, 2007). These people believe that teaching ELL students English should be the first priority, but many schools still use bilingual education. It appears that although English immersion may be a better program many schools continue to use bilingual education because it guarantees that they will receive higher funding. Federal funding is mainly aimed at bilingual education programs, and schools fear that they will lose funding. (Sorenson) It is hard to teach students effectively if there are not enough resources.
Another interesting conflict that affects the education of English Language Learners is Proposition227. This law was created in California, and it is meant to end bilingual education. While ending bilingual education it will in turn promote English immersion programs, but many schools are opposing it. In fact many schools are finding ways around this law. (Crawford, 1999) It is argued that bilingual education programs are the best way for teaching English Language Learners, but many believe that it is not as effective as giving students intense English learning classes. Many parents and teachers believe that the use of bilingual education is very important to their children's education. They believe this so strongly that they have sought waivers in order for their children to continue to be taught in their native language. Some people criticize "districts for granting too many parental waivers and for using too little English", and may file suit against schools for not strictly enforcing this proposition (Crawford, 1999). Those that believe in using bilingual education have also filed suit; they claimed that this law is "unconstitutional", but they were denied because "no "irreparable harm" to students had yet been shown" (Crawford, 1999). In order to meet the educational needs of English Language Learners schools have to either go along with the laws or find ways around them.
Reference:
Crawford, J. (1999). What now for bilingual education?. Retrieved February 9, 2008, from Rethinking Schools Online Web site: http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/13_02/bimain.shtml
Sorenson, L. (2007). Teach our children English. Retrieved February 9, 2008, from ProEnglish Web site: http://www.proenglish.org/issues/education/beindex.html

The Impact of the First Amendment of Education

The Impact of the First Amendment of Education

The Constitution is an amazing document that has helped create the society we live in today. The First Amendment has a huge impact on all of our everyday lives, but what some may not realize is that it also directly affects education.
A key educational issue that is related to the First Amendment is the separation of church and state because the first amendment states that no laws endorsing a religion shall be passed. This issue impacts education because the pledge of allegiance is said in many schools, and God is referenced in this pledge. It is argued that public schools are funded by the government and the use of God in public schools is illegal according to the First Amendment.
Another educational issue posed by the First Amendment is the issue of prayers before sports events. This issue impacts the classroom because some students might find it relevant to have a prayer before a sports event, and the first amendment states that the government may not prohibit the free exercise of religion. It is also arguable that the prayer, as is the pledge of allegiance, is tradition. Schools may argue that the ceremony before a sports event is solely up to the students, and the choice of action is the student's prerogative which makes it not the power of the school. The school may argue that they are not endorsing religion and the act is not unconstitutional. This issue is also controversial because the first amendment guarantees people the right to practice their religion.
Like the last educational issue posed by the First Amendment there is also an issue with prayer during graduation ceremonies. This issue impacts education because endorsement of religion by a school violates the First Amendment. This action also raises an issue about religious discrimination because the First Amendment states that freedom of speech is a right of all people and freedom of religion as well. This argument impacts education because it is a contradictory subject, but allowing students to choose whether or not they will say prayers during graduation is constitutional, where as, requiring that they pray would violate the constitution.
Another key element in the First Amendment that impacts education is the ability of people to petition the government when they feel laws are unjustly passed. In many cases this First Amendment right has led education to change. For instance the ability for students to choose whether they say the pledge of allegiance and for some schools to have the pledge of allegiance removed from school curriculum.
The right to assemble is another First Amendment right that has impact on education; due to this right many people have had the ability to form groups that fight against issues in education. This right has helped in the battle against having the pledge of allegiance removed from school curriculum because parents have assembled and taken the issue to court. The right to assemble is also an important issue in education because it allows parent teacher associations to exist and it allows parents and teachers to have an impact on their children's education.
The First Amendment plays many roles in education, but it also causes many controversies in education. Although the First Amendment causes some issues in education to be hard to judge; it also provides people with the ability to challenge these ideas and improve on education overall.

Cases and Laws that Have Affected the Education of Students with Disabilities

Cases and Laws that Have Affected the Education of Students with Disabilities

Equal inclusion of students with disabilities is an important and serious issue in American education. There are many cases and laws that have had an impact on this issue. Here is a list of such cases and laws:
Brown vs. Board of Education is the first case to set a positive example for educators in relation to the rights of the students. This case acknowledges the fact that an African American student should be able to attend school in an equal educational environment to white students (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006). This case was so exemplary because it was the first case to set a standard of integration instead of segregation. Brown vs. Board of Education is such a famous case because it not only gave African American students a right to a better education; it also paved the way for disable students to receive an equal education as well (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006).
PARC vs. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is another important case that affects the equal inclusion of students with disabilities. This case caused all students, from the ages of 6 through 21, with disabilities to be provided free public education (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006).
Mills vs. Board of Education required that the District of Columbia provide a free public education to students with disabilities. This case also required that educators provide "due process procedural safeguards"; as a result of Mills vs. Board of Education laws that "clearly outlined due process procedures for labeling, placement, and exclusion" were created, and "Procedural safeguards to include right to appeal, right to access records, and written notice of all stages of the process" were also required (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006).
In 1975 a very important law was signed. "Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act" was a law that "provided individuals, ages 3 to 21, with a free and appropriate education for all children with disabilities, procedural safeguards to protect the rights of students and their parents, and education in the least restrictive environment, individualized educational programs, parental involvement in educational decisions related to their children with disabilities, fair, accurate, and nonbiased evaluations" (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006).
In 1994 amendments to the previous act were passed by congress, and this law is called "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006). This law required that students with traumatic brain injury and autism be a "separate class entitled to services", and this law also required students with disabilities to be given a "transition plan" that assess the needs of the student and sets a plan for transition into adulthood (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006).
In 1997 another IDEA law that amended Public Law 94-142 was passed. This law was called "Public Law 105-17", and it included strengthening the "role of the parents" in order to ensure educational success and meditational methods of encouraging "parents and educators to resolve their differences" (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006). This law also allowed school officials to discipline students in a manner that changed the safeguards previously set and set formulas for funding.
Another case that has played a role in the educational standards of students with disabilities is Hendrick Hudson School District v. Rowley, and this case is the first case to challenge the idea of "appropriate education" (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006). This case is a touchy subject because it questions the ability to provide education to students with disabilities and the funding needed for such education. This case ruled that students with disabilities were meant to be provided with a free public education that was fair and provides satisfactory results, but not necessarily the best possible education (Chinn and Gollnick, 2006).
There have been many cases and laws that have directly impacted the education of special education students. Standards of education have increased for students with disabilities, and many special education students have been provided with excellent educational environments, but funding has caused a satisfactory education to be satisfactory instead of excellent.
Reference:
Chinn, P. & Gollnick, D. (2006). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society.

Tips on How to Monitor and Provide Resources for Science Experiments in the Classroom

Tips on How to Monitor and Provide Resources for Science Experiments in the Classroom

In order for a student to understand scientific concepts, it is important for a student to observe and participate in experiments. Experiments give students the hands on experience they need in order to remember and understand scientific ideas. Being involved in the lessons are fun and exciting for students and should be incorporated into the classroom.
It is not always easy for a teacher to incorporate experiments into the class because not all schools receive enough funding for many resources to be provided for experiments, but there are many ways that a teacher can work around this obstacle. First off some experiments can be directly shown through the teacher. If a teacher is demonstrating there is only the need for the one set of experiments for the supplies. This can help students experience the scientific concepts indirectly through the teacher.
If a teacher wants to do an experiment where the student participates, but there are not many resources the teacher can ask for donations from parents; she can also ask the businesses that provide the supplies needed for donations. The teacher can also hold fund raising if there are things needed or a science trip she wants to take the students on. There are also many experiments that can be done with things found in nature or around the home. Although there is not always enough funding there are many alternative resources that teacher's can take advantage of in order to provide experiments for their students.
It is important to ensure student safety in the classroom; an important part of this is by explaining each experiment thoroughly before hand, demonstrating each experiment, answering all questions, and concerns before an experiment is started. It is also important to make sure that there are already set rules that are stood by in the classroom. Providing all supplies that are necessary for protection is also important; paying close attention to the students and thinking through all possible outcomes of an experiment is also important to provide safety in a classroom. Experiments are essential to a lesson's effectiveness in the classroom, but safety should be the first priority.
In order to ensure student involvement in the classroom it is important to have the students participate and watch experiments. If a student has to be actively involved in a lesson they will be more willing to participate because it will be more fun for them. Experiments are the perfect way to keep students enthusiastic and involved in the classroom.

Tips on How to Monitor and Provide Resources for Science Experiments in the Classroom

Tips on How to Monitor and Provide Resources for Science Experiments in the Classroom

In order for a student to understand scientific concepts, it is important for a student to observe and participate in experiments. Experiments give students the hands on experience they need in order to remember and understand scientific ideas. Being involved in the lessons are fun and exciting for students and should be incorporated into the classroom.

It is not always easy for a teacher to incorporate experiments into the class because not all schools receive enough funding for many resources to be provided for experiments, but there are many ways that a teacher can work around this obstacle. First off some experiments can be directly shown through the teacher. If a teacher is demonstrating there is only the need for the one set of experiments for the supplies. This can help students experience the scientific concepts indirectly through the teacher.
If a teacher wants to do an experiment where the student participates, but there are not many resources the teacher can ask for donations from parents; she can also ask the businesses that provide the supplies needed for donations. The teacher can also hold fund raising if there are things needed or a science trip she wants to take the students on. There are also many experiments that can be done with things found in nature or around the home. Although there is not always enough funding there are many alternative resources that teacher's can take advantage of in order to provide experiments for their students.
It is important to ensure student safety in the classroom; an important part of this is by explaining each experiment thoroughly before hand, demonstrating each experiment, answering all questions, and concerns before an experiment is started. It is also important to make sure that there are already set rules that are stood by in the classroom. Providing all supplies that are necessary for protection is also important; paying close attention to the students and thinking through all possible outcomes of an experiment is also important to provide safety in a classroom. Experiments are essential to a lesson's effectiveness in the classroom, but safety should be the first priority.
In order to ensure student involvement in the classroom it is important to have the students participate and watch experiments. If a student has to be actively involved in a lesson they will be more willing to participate because it will be more fun for them. Experiments are the perfect way to keep students enthusiastic and involved in the classroom.

How to Monitor and Create an Interdisciplinary Learning Center in the Classroom

How to Monitor and Create an Interdisciplinary Learning Center in the Classroom

A classroom is made up of many different students, and their learning needs are diverse. In order to accommodate the many different learning styles of students, it is key to have interdisciplinary learning centers as a staple structure in the classroom. Learning centers are a great way to help teach students, and it is important to make sure that students' needs are met in these learning environments. Here is an example of how I would set up a learning center in order to fulfill both the needs of the teachers and the students.
In order to design an interdisciplinary learning center for elementary students I would concentrate on motivating, reinforcing, and supporting students' needs, while also allowing teachers to meet the different learning styles and ability levels of the students. My learning center will include many different subjects, and I will set up interactive displays for the subjects of math, science, English, and history.
The learning center will have tables for each subject set in the corners of the room, and there will be posters that apply to each subject up on the wall by the tables they correspond with. The math section will have flash chards for different mathematic equations and different games that help improve math skills. The science section will have many resources for experiments, toys that illustrate scientific theories, and many plants, minerals, fossils, and crystals. The English table will contain many different books of poetry and literature. I would also like to have a board with magnetic poetry pieces on it so the children can create their own writing easily. The history table will include many different pictures and writing about historical events. If possible I would also like to include some artifacts or replicas of artifacts to show the children. Arrowheads and tools that wear used in the past would be nice too. All of these items are key to helping the children interactive and see what these subjects are really about.
In the middle of the room there will also be a table, which will have computers that have interactive teaching programs that are based around these subjects, and there will be tape players and headphones so children can listen to books and lessons on tape. This table will also provide a place for quiet work for students who want to study separately.
This set-up is an effective room arrangement because it will allow the teacher to walk around the room easily; this is also important because it will be necessary to monitor the students efficiently. A teacher can monitor the classroom well by walking around, asking the students questions, examining there work or what they are looking at, and answering any questions the students have. In order to anticipate and handle problems the teacher must effectively monitor the classroom and make sure that each student has something they are working on. If a problem does occur despite the teacher's efforts a student can be asked to stay with the teacher as she monitors the class, or the student can be given an individual assignment and separated from the class. It is important to be able to handle any situation that arises in the learning environment and this classroom plan will help the teacher be aware of all of the students.
An interdisciplinary learning center can be a fun and effective way of learning. If all of the subjects of interest are elaborated on in interesting ways the students will be able to involve themselves in a way that is much more memorable than just sitting in the classroom or doing homework. Learning environments are also a good way of monitoring the classroom while also giving the students a sense of independent learning. A learning environment is a good way to teaching students that should be interactive, effective, and easily monitored, and all effective classrooms should have one!

Effective Tips for Classroom Management, Organization, and Planning

Effective Tips for Classroom Management, Organization, and Planning

Being a teacher can be very rewarding, but it also takes a lot of work, time and consideration on the part of a teacher. Organization, planning, and time management hold an imperative role in managing a classroom. Students must be constantly monitored in order to make sure they are progressing; it is also important to monitor students to make sure that they are learning, and to help avoid disruption or off task behavior. Problems do occur in classrooms, and they must be anticipated and handled correctly. There are many things a teacher must take into consideration, and teaching can be a great job, but there is a lot of work involved as well.
In order to effectively manage my classroom I will have to have effective expectations, strongly organized procedures, and I must be able to utilize my resources and have good time management strategies. As a teacher of early childhood children it is important to provide a lot of work in the classroom; it is also important to provide involvement of the students. These procedures will help keep the children focused and enthusiastic in the classroom. As an elementary school teacher it is important to set rules and standards in the classroom during the first few weeks of classes (Lemlech, 2006). These rules can be established through socialization in the classroom, and these rules and standards must be specific and concrete so they can be understood and followed correctly. Enthusiasm in a classroom is a very effective way to help conserve time. Enthusiasm and encouragement is important in order to help the children get involved and interested in the lessons. Another very important way to save time in the classroom is being prepared; having materials and lessons ready before the day begins will help keep a continuous learning environment in the classroom (Lemlech, 2006). It is also important to monitor the students' progress and abilities in order to make sure they are all grasping the lessons. Group learning is a way of saving time through interaction because students will figure out lessons quicker in a group than they would alone. Another good way to help save time in the classroom is to provide students with immediate feedback. It is important to be organized, prepared, and able to utilize resources in a classroom; this is vital to saving time, keeping the class focused, and having the learning environment be effective.
In order to effectively manage a classroom it is important to have the environment arranged in a way that makes learning easier. As an art teacher my classroom will be completely revolved around art. My classroom layout will involve the students in many ways. First the desks will be in a U shape so that the students can converse with each other, and this way they will be able to see each other when they talk. This also allows me to put a table in the middle of the class for observation drawings, lessons, and motivational displays. I will also have a bookcase for students to research; there are so many different art ideas and styles, and I would like my students to have access to as much information as possible. I will also need cabinets for supplies and racks for large canvases. It is important to incorporated tables for drying artwork. I would like to have three tables that will have different art ideas, projects, and/or styles on them. The tables will give the students ideas for art as well as ideas on how to use different mediums. I have included a small table and two chairs for students looking at the books. I also included a plant because I think it is good to have plants in an artistic environment. I will also have plenty of art prints, pieces, originals, and copies all over the room; these various artworks will provide inspiration for the students, and they will also make the classroom a much nicer, prettier place to be.
It is important to monitor students' progress especially considering there are all different types of students and classes, and there are many ways to keep the attention of the students in a classroom. When monitoring independent classwork assignments it is imperitive to walk around the classroom, offer encouragement and assistance where needed, and observe the students' behavior. During independent work it is important to have a signal that will help the students ask for help (Lemlech, 2006). A student could stand up or wait at the teachers desk if the student has a question or problem; this will stop the class from being interrupted, and the students will be able to concentrate. During group work it is important to monitor the class as well because students can become unfocused and not complete the assignments. In order to keep a class focused during group work it is important to use two strategies. These strategies include asking specific students questions that pertain to the lesson and making sure each student in the groups have assigned roles (Lemlech, 2006). Some classrooms will contain students who are English language learners, and it is very important to monitor their progress. Initially if as a teacher you do not speak the student's native language that is an obstacle, but it can be helped by the assistance of someone who does speak the student's language. In order to monitor the progress of an ELL it is also important to ask the student questions to identify if the student understands the content and processes in the class. Homework is also important to monitor when you are teaching an ELL student, and in order to monitor homework a teacher can discuss homework in the beginning of the class (Lemlech, 2006). This is helpful when trying to keep enthusiasm up in the classroom amongst all of the students as well. Discussing the previous homework is also important because it helps to introduce the next lesson while remembering the last lesson. I believe there are many ways that I can keep students engaged in the lessons I plan to create. I think having a lot of different examples of art will help keep the students focused. I also plan on having a computer and a projector in the classroom at all times so I can show students different examples of art. I also plan on having a radio so that we can listen to music as we create. I think that encouraging students will keep them motivated, and letting them express their opinions and have a say in the projects we do is important. There are many ways to monitor a student's progress in a classroom, and it is vital to monitor students learning in order to be an effective teacher.
In all classrooms problems will sometimes arise, and it is the teacher's job to not only handle these problems, but to anticipate them as well. Initially I think it is extremely important to have standards and rules set in a classroom from the beginning of the school year. I also think that along with the rules and standards that I require in the classroom it will be important to offer incentives and rewards for students who follow the rules and observe the standards. In contrast to this idea I will also establish punishments for certain behavior (Lemlech, 2006). Even though problems can be anticipated and planned for they still occur, and as a teacher one must be able to handle them. When a problem occurs the student should be reminded of the lesson and the consequences of the actions the student has taken (Lemlech, 2006). If the problem persists the student can be separated from the class and given individual work; the student can also be used to help teach the lesson. If problems still continue or increase the student can be sent to the principal's office or a parent can be contacted. Students can also be asked to stay for detention, where they can be given extra work and spoken to about the problem. It is important to not only prepare for off task behavior in the classroom, but to pay strong attention to the students' behavior. If attention is given to the students it will be easier to diffuse problems and get to the root of them.
In order to be an effective teacher one must be very aware of the students, time, and oneself. Teaching takes a lot of time being prepared, and assessing lessons and the performance of the teacher and the students. A teacher must constantly monitor students to make sure there are not problems with learning. A teacher must also anticipate that a classroom may be disrupted at times. Time must be taken to create situations that avoid problems. When problems do arise they must be handled correctly and appropriate action on the teachers part must also be anticipated and taken. A teacher must also constantly assess her ideas, and what she is teaching the students. Advice given must come into consideration along with examples set. Rules must be abided by, and the teacher must also establish respect in a classroom. A teacher's job is very demanding, but the rewards completely out way the demands.
Reference:
Lemlech, J.K. (2006). Curriculum and instructional methods for the elementary and middle school. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-Text]. , : Prentice-Hall/Merrill. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from University of Phoenix, rEsource, Classroom Instruction Web site.

Developmental Stages of Infants and 6 to 10 Year Olds

Developmental Stages of Infants and 6 to 10 Year Olds

As a teacher, it is extremely important to understand the development of children. There are many different levels of development, and there are many different stages of development a child goes through before a child becomes an adult. From infancy to late adolescence it is important to understand the physical, emotional, cognitive, intellectual, language, reading, writing, social and interpersonal developments a child will go through in order to be an efficient teacher. Middle-childhood and infancy are both important developmental stages that have some things in common, but they are not completely the same.

Infancy is the developmental age group that encompasses children from birth to two years of age; middle childhood is the age group that includes children of the ages six to 10 years old. During infancy children tend to grow and change physically very rapidly. The "emergence of reflexes" and a "general decline in crying" also occurs during this age group (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.106). During infancy there is an increase in ability of movement and children will start, crawling, sitting, and walking. Infancy is also the time when children will gain the ability to use the small muscles of their hands and eyes" (Mcdevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.106). Middle childhood children will develop physically by growing steadily in weight and height; this is also the time when children will begin to lose their baby teeth and gain their adult teeth. During middle childhood children will also develop a "refinement and consolidation of gross motor skills and integration of such skills into structured play activities" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.106). Middle childhood is the time where children will engage in organized sports; they will also increase the capability of their fine motor skills. Infancy is the beginning of physical development for children, and during middle childhood physical attributes become more complex.
Emotional development starts from birth. Infants exhibit strong amounts of attachment to those who take care of them, and may show some distress when they are separated from their caregiver. Throughout infancy a child increases their "repertoire of ways to communicate feelings" and gain a "beginning ability to soothe themselves" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.400). During infancy children will develop a sense of self and may exhibit some possessiveness over toys. Middle childhood is a time where children develop an "increasing number of bonds outside of family" and an "increasing ability to regulate emotions" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.400). During this age group children will start to compare their own abilities to those of their peers, and many children of this age group seem to have good self-esteem. During infancy children are starting to develop emotions, and during middle childhood children are starting to understand their emotions.
Congnitive development in infants is shown through an increase in "physical exploration of environment" and a "growing awareness of simple cause effect relationships" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 178). During this age children also exhibit the ability to characterize the world in their minds. During middle childhood children start to show " conservation, multiple classification, and other forms of adult logic", but they have a "limited ability to reason about abstract or hypothetical ideas" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 178). Middle childhood children become capable of participating in sports and games that require "coordinating multiple perspectives" (McDevitt &Ormrod, 2004, p.178). Cognitive developments in infants are very simplistic, and cognitive developments in middle childhood children are more advanced.
Intellectually infants have short attention spans and are easily distracted. During infancy children do well with "recognition memory, visual preferences, and eye-hand coordination" and their performance on assessments bases highly on "examiner's ability to establish a positive relationship with the infant" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.258). Middle childhood is the age group where there is a noticeable difference in the understanding of academic subject matter amongst students. During middle childhood children show "success on test items that involve defining concrete words, remembering sentences and short sequences, understanding concrete analogies, recognizing similarities among objects, and identifying absurdities in illogical statements.
Language developments occur rapidly in infants. "Repetition of vowel sounds" will start as early as one month of age and will grow into "babbling" and the combination of vowel and consonant sounds by the age of "six months" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 308). By about a year old children will be able to use single words and a rapid increase in an infant's vocabulary will occur from the age of one year old to two years old. For middle childhood children the use of "comparative words" and "temporal word" will be successful, and pronunciation will be mastered (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 308). During this age children will also be able to maintain conversation about concrete topics; they will also understand the idea of cause and effect and narrative plots. "Linguistic word play" will also become part of a middle childhood child's knowledge base.
Reading and writing development in infants starts with the use of colorful toy books. During infancy children are more interested in pictures and rhyme schemes. Middle childhood children are much more advanced in reading and writing skills. They have the "ability to hear phonemes within words", and they are beginning to read silently" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 308). Reading and writing skills start at infancy, and they continue, to develop progressively as children get older.
Social development in infancy is marked by the awareness that people have goals and desires that are unique to themselves. Infants also exhibit social development when they look to others to see how to react to situations. During infancy children also show signs of "distress towards aggression" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 444). During middle childhood children have an awareness of other people's mental states, but they seem to "over simplify the nature of other people's mental states", and they have a "growing recognition that other people interpret experiences instead of taking them at face value" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 444). Children of the middle childhood age group also start to have knowledge of the government; they also start to feel empathy for others. Middle childhood is also the time when children start to feel "shame for moral wrong doing" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 308). From infancy to middle childhood there is a lot of developments that occur.
Interpersonally infants show a lot of emotion in regard to their toys. Aggression may occur during the first year "when another child takes a child's toy", and "in the second year pushing and shoving to gain toys" may occur" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 555). Infants also exhibit interpersonal development when they cannot control their environment, and they make take out their frustrations on the caregiver. Middle childhood children differ from infants because they have a "decrease in overt physical aggression", and they increase in "covert antisocial behaviors" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 555). During this age group children also have an understanding of the intentions of others. Infants have a tendency to show physical aggression, and middle childhood children instead internalize it.
It is extremely important to understand the development of children if you are going to be a teacher. Children develop very differently during different stages, and it is important to be aware of how they develop. It is also important to be aware of the normal developments that occur at different ages. Infants and middle childhood children develop a lot during these age groups. Although they both develop a lot there is a big difference in the developments that take place. During infancy children are beginning to develop on many levels, and during middle childhood children are taking the knowledge base they already have and increasing it in many complex ways.
Reference:
McDevitt, T., & Ormrod, J. (2004). Child Development: Education and Working with Children and Adolescents (2nd ed.). : Prentice Hall

Social, Emotional and Moral Development in Children

Social, Emotional and Moral Development in Children

As children grow from infancy to adulthood, they are affected by the environment around them as well as the genetics they are born with. As they grow older the change and develop in many ways. Children go through many stages pf social and moral development from the time of early childhood through adolescence, and they also face many social and emotional developments.

Infancy is the time period of a child's life that starts at birth and goes through the age of 2 years old; during infancy children develop socially and morally. From birth babies begin to realize that humans are not inanimate objects. Infants realize that "unlike objects, people are active, expressive, and responsive"; they also realize that "people have an "inner life" that objects do not" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 415). At this early age a child begins to realize how to behave in order to accomplish a goal. An infant will reach for and point at an object that it wants. In the second year of infancy children "become increasingly cognizant of other people's mental states", and "they clearly have some awareness of other people's attentional focus and emotions" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 415). By the age of 18 months children become extremely aware of how their actions influence the people around them. At this point in time children become knowledgeable of what behaviors cause certain emotions from the people around them, and they act accordingly. Infancy is the beginning of childhood, and it is the beginning of emotional, social, and moral development for children.
Early childhood ranges from the age of two years old to six years old. During this time period children develop a lot, and they become increasingly aware of the mind frame of the people around them. As early as two years old, children " spontaneously use words that refer to people's desires and emotions (e.g., want, feel sad), and by age 21รข"2 or 3, words such as think and know appear in their speech", and "by the time children are 3, they realize that the mind is distinct from the physical world-that thoughts, memories, and dreams are not physical entities" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 415). Although children at this age are aware of a lot they do not always understand their own ability of thought. Sometimes children assume that "what they know is what other people know as well", and "Not may be unintentional. Early childhood is an important age of development. until age 4 or 5 do children appreciate a false belief: They realize that circumstances may reasonably lead people to believe something different from what they themselves know to be true" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 416). At the end of early childhood it is easier for a child to understand intentions, and what
Middle childhood is the age group that encompasses children of the ages six through ten. During this age group children become much more aware of a persons mental state. Children of this age "are more tuned in to the subtle nuances of other people's behavior, and they realize that people's actions do not always reflect their thoughts and feelings-for instance, that people who appear happy may actually feel sad" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 417). During this time children are also beginning to realize that thinking is a constant thing. Children of the middle childhood age group are beginning to realize that "people interpret what they see and hear, rather than just "recording" it verbatim, and so children realize that people may occasionally misconstrue an event they have witnessed" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 417). At this age children are becoming extremely more aware of how complex the mind and emotions are.
Early adolescence is an age group that covers children of the ages 10 years old to 14 years old. "As children move into early adolescence, they begin to appreciate that people can have ambivalent feelings about events and other individuals" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 417). At this age children also become aware that they may have many conflicting emotions and thoughts at the same time. This age group is so significant because it is the time when children "become increasingly thoughtful about such matters, and their ability to recognize the complexity of thoughts and emotions in themselves is correlated with their ability to recognize them in others", and "courtesy of their expanding cognitive abilities, memory capacity, and social awareness, young adolescents increasingly engage in recursive thinking" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 418). Recursive thinking is when a child can think about and reflect on the thoughts of others and how they affect themselves in many different ways. This age group is a time when other people's perspectives can be taken into consideration.
Late adolescence is the time period that encompasses children of the age of 14 through 18, and it is the time where children are learning to become adults. Children of this age group "may increasingly conceptualize knowledge as an integrated body of ideas (rather than a collection of discrete facts) that continues to evolve over time, and they may begin to discover that how people think about information affects their ability to learn it" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 418). During this time children have a large knowledge base to refer to in order to think and feel. They have had many life experiences that affect their emotions and thoughts. At this age children also "realize that other people are not always aware of why they act as they do" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 418). At this point the thought, social, and moral processes of a child are extremely complex.
The social and emotional development of middle childhood children and infants are similar but extremely different as well. Infants are directly responsive to the emotions of others, and "by 3 months, infants imitate the happy, sad, and angry faces their mothers make" " (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 376). Infants are increasingly aware of emotions and how they cause reactions from the people around them as well. During middle childhood children are capable of seeing themselves in more complicated terms. Children of the middle childhood age range "develop a generally positive-or negative-sense of their worth as human beings: They believe either that they are good, capable individuals or that they are somehow inept and unworthy" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 396). While infants are aware of their emotions and how they affect their situations; middle childhood children are concerned with how other's points of view affect their own self esteem. Both of these age groups are important, and should be taken into consideration when teaching children.
It is amazing how a child grows and develops. From as early as infancy children are aware of the world around them; they are aware of emotion and intentions. As children get older their thoughts and emotions become more complex, and they are able to understand and analyze the emotions of others as well. It is important as a teacher to be aware of all of these developments in order to fully understand and reach the students.

Healthy Life Choices for Children

Healthy Life Choices for Children

Children of the age group 2- 6 years old are categorized as the early childhood developmental age group. "Physical movement is a hallmark of early childhood, and dramatic changes occur in both gross motor skills and fine motor skills" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 109). Gross motor skills such as running, climbing, throwing, and jumping are developed during the early childhood developmental age group; these skills help a child to move around his or her environment easily (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004).
Fine motor skills are also developed at this time, and these skills enable a child to use his or her hands more skillfully. Children of this age group are more capable of drawing and cutting (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004). Fantasy is also an integral part of this age group and children will pretend that they are "superheroes and villains, cowboys and cowgirls, astronauts and aliens" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004).
The middle childhood developmental age group includes children of the ages 6 - 10 years old, and during this period of time children will refine their motor skills, learn social lessons, and become more aware of their physical appearance. Gross motor skills will be refined and they will become more systematic.
Children will hone their athletic skills as they "intensify their speed and coordination in running, kicking, catching, and dribbling" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.110). Fine motor skills will also increase as children of this age group create drawings that are more "detailed and complex" due to "physiological maturation and cognitive advances" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 110).
Children of this age will start learning valuable social lessons such as how to "negotiate over rules" and figure out "whose turn" it is . (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 110).
This is also a period of time when children will become more aware of and concerned with their physical appearance, and they can be critical of themselves and sensitive (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 110).
There are many factors that influence the physical well being of a child, but the three main factors are eating habits, sleep and rest, and physical activity (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 116). A child's eating habits "influences their energy level, ability to concentrate, and capacity for performing physical and mental tasks"; it also "affects their physical growth, brain development, and sexual maturation" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 116).
"A common feature of physical activity in early and middle childhood is rough-and tumble play, or good-natured "fighting" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 116). During early childhood children participate a lot in physical activity, but in middle childhood there is a decrease in physical activity. Sleep and rest play an important role in the physical well being of children, and "nightmares are common between the age of 3 and 6" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 116). Lack of sleep can result in irritability and hard transitions.
There are some simple decisions than can be made by children of the early and middle childhood age group in order to benefit their physical well being. A well balanced diet of nutrition is a healthy lifestyle choice that can be made. "Unfortunately, practitioners often encounter children who are poorly fed, perhaps because their parents have few financial resources, are homeless, are physically or mentally ill, or simply do not have access to appropriate nutrition", and this is a sad state of affairs (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 116). good nutrition is extremely important for all people, especially growing children.
An active lifestyle is important because it teaches children many life lessons, and it keeps them in good physical shape. Organized sports are a good way for middle childhood developmental age groups to stay active, and early childhood developmental age groups become increasingly active because they derive so much pleasure of physical activity (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004). Efficient sleep and rest is another healthy life choice that children can make. "Sleeping and resting are essential to growth and health.
Sleep actually helps young people to grow, because growth hormones are released at higher rates as children snooze. In addition to promoting growth, sleep may help the brain to maintain normal functioning and promote its development" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 122). Healthy life choices are important for children of all ages, and adult. Healthy life choices not only promote physical health and growth, but these choices help support a healthy mental state.
"The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the last few decades, as has the number of children who are extremely overweight", and "childhood obesity is a concern because it may lead to serious health risks, especially in adulthood" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.117). Children who do not have a well balanced diet are in danger of making poor health choices that will have a serious impact on their lives. "Becoming excessively involved in sports and exercise can present medical problems for children" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.117).
Children are still growing and physical activity is good for them, but too much can strain and wear on their bodies can be harmful. Insufficient sleep and rest directly affects children. Sleep is essential to early and middle childhood because children produce more hormones that help them grow when they are sleeping. Sleep also increases the body and mind's ability to focus and react (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004).
A child's development may be altered by inherited or environmental factors. "All children get sick now and then, but some have ongoing, long-term illnesses as a result of genetic legacies" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.133). These illnesses are not the child's fault, and the child may be sensitive to these differences. Obesity seems to have some genetic basis, but environmental factors, such as family eating patterns, also play a role (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p.118). Many children are in environments where their eating habits are not regulated, and they are not taught healthy eating patterns. The environment a child grows up in and the genetics a child is born with directly affects a child's growth.
Reference:
McDevitt, T., & Ormrod, J. (2004). Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents (2nd ed.). : Prentice Hall

Is Agricultural Soil Erosion Really a Cause of Global Warming?

Is Agricultural Soil Erosion Really a Cause of Global Warming?



Al Gore made a documentary about global warming, and cows are even playing a part in global warming. There are many studies and debates currently about what is causing global warming and what is affecting it the most. There are also many ideas of how to decrease the emissions into the atmosphere by means of prevention and production.

Recently, there has been some debate about the effect agricultural soil erosion is having on global warming. It was originally believed that carbon emissions caused by soil erosion were a contributing factor to the problem of global warming. This idea was challenged with controversy by those who believed that agricultural soil erosion may be helping to remove carbon emissions from the atmosphere thus helping slow down the process of global warming.
Global warming is an extreme change in climate that is caused by the emission of carbon and other greenhouse gases. The gases emitted cause heat from the sun to be trapped inside the Earth's atmosphere. This is causing a drastic change of climate to occur; serious environmental changes are occurring quicker than formerly believed, and this is causing the polar ice caps to melt and water levels to rise.
Global warming may be a serious threat, and measures to decrease the rate in which greenhouse gases are being released into the air are being taken, and methods of removing emissions from the atmosphere are being taken as well. A recent study has shown evidence that might determine that agricultural soil erosion is not really releasing as much carbon as previously anticipated.
Tests have shown that carbon might actually be re-emitted into the soil by means of erosion, and the carbon from plant matter decomposing in the soil (Daily Science, 2007). The study measured the net amounts of carbon emitted into the atmosphere and the net amount of carbon being deposit into the soil.
The study indicates that the amounts of carbon being released into the atmosphere due to soil erosion are not as extreme as believed, but the amounts of carbon being deposited into the soil was not that extreme either. Soil erosion is not one of the biggest threats in the conflict of global warming, and the amount of carbons being taken out of the atmosphere and mixed into the soil was dramatically less beneficial than previously thought.
Global warming is an effect of increased greenhouse gases. What is truly causing it is still under much discussion, but I am curious to see what will come of these extreme environmental changes.
Reference:
Daily Science. (2007). Agricultural Soil Erosion Not Contributing to Global Warming. Retrieved October 26, 2007, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071025143317.htm